8 Defining license: a contract between an IP owner and a third party where the IP owner grants certain rights to use the licensed technology to the third party without relinquishing ownership Patenting decision Patenting decisions are made by the director of TD based on recommendations provided by the patent review committee, called a Business Evaluation Strategy Team (BEST). Factors the team considers include protectability, impact on INL’s core mission objectives, marketing opportunities and licensing possibilities. Inventors have the option to present their invention and answer questions from the committee prior to the decision. If inventors disagree with the recommendation of the BEST committee, they can request a review of the decision by the TD director. For technologies TD decides to patent, an initial patent strategy is identified. In most cases, an independent patent law firm is hired to prepare and prosecute the patent application under the direction of INL Legal. The process of identifying a patent strategy is more fully described in the Patents and the patenting process section on page 9. Marketing TD will formulate a marketing strategy to find parties interested in commercializing the IP. Detailed analyses, sometimes through the engagement of outside consultants who connect with industry experts, add to TD’s understanding of the potential market for the technology and help determine further patenting and marketing actions. Inventors are often enormously helpful in finding interested licensees, because they have many contacts through their research. Once interested companies are identified, the inventor is often the best person to describe the details and technical advantages of the invention. The most successful technology transfers result from the inventor and TD working together as a team. The process is more fully described in The Basics of Marketing, Licensing and Commercialization section on page 18. Licensing A license agreement is used to grant rights in INL IP to third parties. License agreements are executed with both established companies, new startup businesses, and even other government agencies. More information can be found in The Basics of Marketing, Licensing and Commercialization section on page 18. Gus Caffrey 2013 Highlights of commercial developments: Gus is best known for the Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system; a chemical analysis technology that can reveal the contents of an artillery shell without opening it. PINS has been further developed into a third generation that is far more portable and capable and offers the ability to detect and identify chemical warfare agents and improvised explosive devices. His work has been a major lifesaving advancement for military forces. In 2013, PINS transitioned from government-only technology to commercial use by our licensee, Advanced Measurement Technology, Inc. (AMETEK). Other research includes successful identification of mustard gas in large metal canisters for which Gus won an R&D 100 award.