A Guide for Inventors at INL — 2017 15 24 to 48 months 48 to 120 Months 30 Months PCT examiner indicates patentability Individual foreign patents may issue If a PCT application is filed, individual applications and translations can be filed in specific countries and regions when the case warrants Patent may issue (average time is 24 to 48 months) the combination of the country-by-country filing fees and the necessity for translations and additional attorneys. Furthermore, because the laws in foreign countries vary with respect to the value patent protection affords the owner, the value of foreign protection may be less than the corresponding value in the U.S. As a consequence, TD is considerably more selective in decisions to file international applications than U.S. applications. Generally, TD will only pursue foreign applications when the technology has been licensed and the licensee pays for the international filings, or in cases where there are significant foreign markets in which the technology may be licensed. Copyright Copyright is the form of IP that protects the expression of a creative idea that is fixed in a tangible form. It is literally the right to copy, which includes the right to display, perform, distribute copies and make changes to the original copyrighted work. Copy- right only protects the expression of an idea. For example, in The Wizard of Oz, copyright protects conveyances such as the order of the words in the story and the layout of pictures, colors and words on the page. Yet, alternate adaptations of this classic tale (book, screenplay, movie, music) can generate independent copyrighted works. For scientific writings, copyright does not protect the procedures, systems, processes, concepts, formulas, discoveries or devices described in the work. Similarly, for software, copyright does not protect the underlying concepts, processes, systems, algorithms, program logic or layouts. Copyright protects the literal right to copy as well as the rights to display, perform and distribute copies, and to make changes to the original copyrighted work. Changed versions of a work are known as derivative works. A copyright provides the owner with the right to determine how the work is copied and distributed to others, such as through traditional or online publication, open access, sale, lease or lending. Copyright owners also determine whether a fee is charged for access to their work.