10 In order to obtain a patent, an invention must be novel, useful and nonobvious to meet the criteria for patentability. Variations of naturally occurring substances may be patentable if an inventor is able to demonstrate substantial modifications that offer significant advantages. Defining patent: a government authority giving the holder the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell and importing the invention. Patent claims are the legal definition of an inventor’s protectable invention. Patents only provide the right to exclude others from practicing a technology.They do not necessarily provide rights to practice, since it may fall under a broader patent owned by others. RobertV. Fox 2012 Highlights of commercial developments: Robert is actively involved in performing and directing innovative research in the areas of super- critical fluid sciences, nanomaterials synthesis and characterization, metal-complexation reactions, lanthanide and actinide separations, renewable and biofuel synthesis, geochemistry, environmental radio- chemistry, LIBS atomic spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy, and molecular spectroscopy. He has received two international R&D 100 awards for patented inven- tions: Precision Nanoparticles in 2009, and Supercritical Solid Catalyst in 2010. The Supercritical Solid Catalyst invention was recognized with a 2010 Gordon Battelle Prize for Technology Impact, and received five other innovation awards. Robert has been issued more than 20 U.S. patents and authored more than 25 peer-re- viewed publications. He was selected as the Idaho Innovator of the Year at the 2010 Idaho Innovation Awards, and was nominated for R&D Magazine’s 2010 Scientist of the Year. Patentable subject matter includes: Methods or processes, which are ways of doing things in one or more steps. Examples: heat treatments, chemical reactions and ways of making a product or software that comprise steps to affect hardware or a process. Machines, which are devices used to accomplish a task. Examples: cigarette lighters, robots, desalination plants, clocks, cars, boats, telephones and lasers. Articles of Manufacture, which are items made by human hands or machines. Examples: erasers, desks, houses, wires, tires, books, cloth and containers. Compositions of Matter, which are chemical compositions, conglomerates or aggregates. Examples: chemical compositions, road base, gasoline, glue, paper, soap, drugs, animals, plastics and synthetic genes. New Uses for any of the above, which are new and nonobvious processes or methods for using a known invention. Examples: using aspirin as growth hormone for pigs or using a powerful vacuum to suck mice out of the ground for pest control.