18 Getting a technology to market is a several-step process that consists of finding a partner interested in commercializing the technology (marketing), negotiating a license and facilitating commercialization. Marketing (seeking partners) Active marketing can begin as soon as a patent application has been filed. TD staff engage in a variety of marketing activities to advocate for INL research and IP. Considerable time and resources are devoted to understanding market needs and contacting potential partners either to license existing technologies or to cultivate relationships (such as sponsored research) that may lead to licenses. The best tools to market a technology vary from industry to industry, therefore, TD engages in a variety of activities depending on the situation and technology. These activities may include: • showcasing INL technologies to venture capitalists, investors, and corporate representatives through TD-hosted events on campus and around the country • attending trade shows and professional meetings • making calls and sending collateral materials • producing brochures and sell sheets • maintaining websites • sending press releases • using social media to cultivate contacts • creating campaigns to promote a portfolio of technologies • hosting events at INL to communicate licensing opportuni- ties to industry. Marketing and related agreements (pre-licensing) Once a potential corporate partner is identified for a technology, nondisclosure agreements (NDAs) are used to protect the confidentiality of any information not publicly available. Material transfer agreements (MTAs) and evaluation agreements may be used to provide companies with certain rights to use the technology for short-term evaluation purposes only. License option agreements reserve the right of a company to negotiate a commercial license. License options may be stand- alone agreements negotiated directly through TD, or they may be clauses contained in other agreements such as Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) or the above pre-licensing agreements. If IP is developed by more than one institution, an inter-insti- tutional agreement (IIA) or income sharing agreement (ISA) is often negotiated to set out the terms under which the multiple organizations will cooperate to assess, protect, market, license and share revenues from the jointly owned IP. The Basics of Marketing, Licensing and Commercialization Common Marketing Questions How long does it take to find a potential licensee? It may take months to years to locate licensees. Factors in the timeline include the attractiveness of the invention, the stage of development and the size of the market. Finding partners often takes time since many INL innovations are on the cutting edge and in advance of the needs of the marketplace.TD works with inventors and others to determine the best time to market a technology. What is the inventor’s role in marketing? Inventors are encouraged to work closely with their CM to market their invention. Inventors are frequently involved in the early stages of recruiting commercial partners and licensees, as the inventor’s expertise is often critical.This involvement includes exchanging information and materials, and sometimes results in further sponsored research (also known as pre-licensing agreements).